These days, CMEs and solar flares get a great deal of media attention. But it’s mostly speculation–for even with our advanced abilities to measure the potential impact, we can’t be sure what will happen each time this occurs. Might this solar flare be strong enough to damage our satellites and electrical infrastructure? we may wonder. Could it ‘fry’ our electrical grid?
The concerns are merely speculative. But is there actual cause for concern? Surely. A massive solar flare could damage much of our technology in space–such as our satellites–and could also certainly cause headaches for those who manage our electrical grids.
But do we know how powerful solar events can be? History may hold the answer.
In September of 1859, a solar flare was so massive that there were newspaper reports of it across the globe, and many found the strange light it created baffling. Of course, now, there’s no speculation as to what happened then–eyewitness accounts and plenty of written evidence in this pre-internet era paint a clear picture of a massive coronal ejection. This event has been referenced many times as a benchmark–one that, should it happen now, would certainly give us pause. Technologically, that is.
It hit quickly. Twelve hours after Carrington’s discovery and a continent away, “We were high up on the Rocky Mountains sleeping in the open air,” wrote a correspondent to the Rocky Mountain News. “A little after midnight we were awakened by the auroral light, so bright that one could easily read common print.” As the sky brightened further, some of the party began making breakfast on the mistaken assumption that dawn had arrived.
Across the United States and Europe, telegraph operators struggled to keep service going as the electromagnetic gusts enveloped the globe. In 1859, the US telegraph system was about 20 years old, and Cyrus Field had just built his transatlantic cable from Newfoundland to Ireland, which would not succeed in transmitting messages until after the American Civil War.
“Never in my experience of fifteen years in working telegraph lines have I witnessed anything like the extraordinary effect of the Aurora Borealis between Quebec and Farther Point last night,” wrote one telegraph manager to the Rochester Union & Advertiser on August 30:
The line was in most perfect order, and well skilled operators worked incessantly from 8 o’clock last evening till one this morning to get over in an intelligible form four hundred words of the report per steamer Indian for the Associated Press, and at the latter hour so completely were the wires under the influence of the Aurora Borealis that it was found utterly impossible to communicate between the telegraph stations, and the line had to be closed.
But if the following newspaper transcript of a telegraph operator exchange between Portland and Boston is to be believed, some plucky telegraphers improvised, letting the storm do the work that their disrupted batteries couldn’t:
Boston operator, (to Portland operator) – “Please cut off your battery entirely from the line for fifteen minutes.”
Portland operator: “Will do so. It is now disconnected.”
Boston: “Mine is disconnected, and we are working with the auroral current. How do you receive my writing?”
Portland: “Better than with our batteries on. Current comes and goes gradually.”
Boston: “My current is very strong at times, and we can work better without the batteries, as the Aurora seems to neutralize and augment our batteries alternately, making current too strong at times for our relay magnets.
Suppose we work without batteries while we are affected by this trouble.”
Portland: “Very well. Shall I go ahead with business?”
Boston: “Yes. Go ahead.”
Telegraphers around the US reported similar experiences. “The wire was then worked for about two hours without the usual batteries on the auroral current, working better than with the batteries connected,” said the Washington Daily National Intelligencer. “Who now will dispute the theory that the Aurora Borealis is caused by electricity?” asked the Washington Evening Star.
As many of you know, I find the downsizing of major shortwave broadcasters around the world deeply concerning, especially since so much of the world still relies on the medium as a source of news and information, and for some the only source of potentially life-saving information.
The recent cuts to RCI, however, were particularly painful. In one stroke of a pen, many people lost their jobs, and RCI’s already-skimpy budget was reduced to virtually nil. What’s more, their only international transmitting station–in Sackville, New Brunswick–is slated to be shut down, meaning there is no intention to continue the service, ever.
When you first glance at the title, Ham Radio USA – 100 Years and Counting, you can’t help but think out loud and ask yourself when ham radio had its real start. If ham radio in the USA really is to have its centennial celebration this year, that necessarily means that we’re assigning the year 1912 a great deal of significance. For the purposes of this article, we’ll focus on the formative years of ham radio and leave the modern for another discussion at another time.
[…]No doubt there are many of us who have been asked regarding the origin of the word “ham,” a word which has come to define our hobby. Although you may not take this as the final word on the subject, you will find this particular interpretation interesting, as there would seem to be no reason to doubt its authenticity. The word ham actually appears in the publication “The Telegraphist” in September of 1884 when referring to a not so good telegrapher as a “duffer” or “ham.” The word “duffer” may be defined as an incompetent or clumsy person, one with little professional training or experience. Although today we take great pride in being called a ham in 2012, being called a ham, at least in the context mentioned here, was unflattering and derogatory at best, during the day of the land line telegrapher of 1884 per this particular citation.
Once upon a time I’d decided to join a Big Guns Gang and made a Super-Duper Powerful Vacuum Tube QRP amplifier for my 800mW QRPP homebrew telegraph vacuum tube transceiver “3T” (I promise to write a separate article or two about this three tube transceiver project later). It was not an easy decision to me because for that legendary time I’d almost a year used the QRPPpower of less than a watt[…]
Tim Allen — star of Home Improvement, Toy Story, The Santa Clause and Galaxy Quest, just to name a few — stars in Last Man Standing, an ABC comedy airing at 8 PM (EST) on Tuesday nights. Allen plays Mike Baxter, KA0XTT, a married father of three and the director of marketing at an outdoor sporting goods store in Colorado whose life is dominated by women. While Amateur Radio has not been prominently featured in the first episodes, according to John Amodeo, NN6JA — the producer of Last Man Standing — it is a part of the show and an important part of Mike’s character. The episode that will establish Mike as a radio amateur is currently scheduled to air in mid-January.
The newest trend in American communication isn’t another smartphone from Apple or Google but one of the elder statesmen of communication: Ham radio licenses are at an all time high, with over 700,000 licenses in the United States, according to the Federal Communications Commission.
Ham radio first took the nation by storm nearly a hundred years ago. Last month the FCC logged 700,314 licenses, with nearly 40,000 new ones in the last five years. Compare that with 2005 when only 662,600 people hammed it up and you’ll see why the American Radio Relay League — the authority on all things ham — is calling it a “golden age.”
“Over the last five years we’ve had 20-25,000 new hams a year,” Allen Pitts, a spokesman for the group, told FoxNews.com.
The much-anticipated Ten-Tec Model 539 QRP transceiver and Model 418 100 watt amplifier are described in the following interview with Ten-Tec conducted by Tom Witherspoon, K4SWL, of QRPer.com. For those who are interested, the “Ten-Tec” in the following interview transcription is actually a collective of three gentlemen, namely, Ten-Tec representatives Jack Burchfield (President of Ten-Tec), John Henry (Ten-Tec Software Engineer), and Stan Brock (Ten-Tec Sales/Marketing).
Model 539 QRP transceiver
QRPer: Will the 539 offer 160 meters? Some readers noticed that the Model 418 amplifier lists 160M as a feature, but the Model 539 doesn’t. Ten-Tec: 160 Meters is a possibility on the Model 539, and Ten-Tec is looking into it.
QRPer: Could the 539 offer 6 meters at some point? Ten-Tec: We doubt this will be included.
QRPer: How about 60M? Ten-Tec: Probably not.
QRPer: One reader asked if ithe Model 539 would have the 0.5 to 1.6 MHz AM broadcast band. Is this a possibility? Ten-Tec: Yes, though still to be determined, it may be possible to receive well into the AM broadcast band. The Model 539, of course, will be optimized for the ham radio bands, thus audio fidelity from an AM broadcaster will be somewhat compromised.
QRPer: We know it’s early days, but what’s the target price for both the Model 539 and 418? Ten-Tec: These are early days, indeed, but we believe the Model 539 transceiver will probably sell for less than $1000 US. As for the Model 418 Amplifier, pricing is yet to be determined.
QRPer: Will the Model 539 have accessibility built in for the blind operator? Ten-Tec: The Model 539 will be a computer controlled transceiver. Many of our visually impaired operators, use, for example, applications like Jaws to adapt our Ten-Tec gear for accessibility.
QRPer: Will the Model 539 have a built-in antenna tuner? Or as an option? Ten-Tec: Due to size constraints, we currently have no plans for this option. Following the legacy of the early Argonaut transceivers, where simplicity and performance were key, we would not want to compromise the radio’s size to add a mediocre ATU.
QRPer: Will AGC also feature an “Off” position? Ten-Tec: The Model 539 is a DSP-based transceiver, as such, there is no real “Off” position. This is really true on all HF DSP transceivers. The AGC function is a part of the DSP algorithm. With that said, if you turn down the RF gain far enough, it will act like a normal analog radio: it will not start AGCing until maybe S7 or S8. The Model 539 will have a selectable AGC with slow through fast speeds.
QRPer: So, will the Model 539 have RF as well as AF gain controls? Ten-Tec: Yes.
QRPer: Will it offer front panel adjustable side tone for both frequency and volume? Ten-Tec: Yes.
QRPer: Will it have user selectable tuning rates? Ten-Tec: Yes.
QRPer: Will it have easy-to-set VFO A=B from front panel to work split? Ten-Tec: Yes, just like all other Ten-Tec transceivers.
QRPer: Will the Model 539 have a keyer built in, and will it have memories? Ten-Tec: Yes, it will have a built-in keyer, but no memories at this point.
QRPer: An attenuator? Available on the front panel? Ten-Tec: You will have the ability to turn on or off a pre-amp. However, there will be no attenuator.
QRPer: That leads to my next question: one reader asked if the rig will have RF GAIN control rather than an ATTENUATOR, which is on the 516? Ten-Tec: Yes, with our RF gain control.
QRPer: Will the rig offer a line-level audio-out jack independent of the AF volume control? Ten-Tec: Yes, the connector is the same as the Ten-Tec Eagle.
QRPer: Computer control port? Computer controllability? Ten-Tec: Yes, the Model 539 will have a USB port for PC control.
QRPer: IF out to connect to SDR Rx for band scope use? Ten-Tec: This is to be determined.
QRPer: True FSK RTTY? Not forcing the use of AFSK. Ten-Tec: There will be capability for a sound card device that can plug into the back for PSK and RTTY. At this point, it will be AFSK only.
QRPer: How about water resistance? Ten-Tec: Let’s put it this way…if you get it wet, dry it off quickly!
QRPer: Good choices, even if they are extra cost plug-ins: Xtal and/or DSP? Ten-Tec: This is the neat thing about this radio, Tom. This will be a reflection of the Eagle. We are going to give you a roofing filter in the first IF stage. There will be two additional slots for crystal filters. We will offer 6 kHz, 900 Hz, and if you want to, you could use filters from the Eagle as they have the same board. Additionally, it will have all of the DSP filtering the Eagle has. You’ll essentially have 3 roofing filter slots and over 100 DSP filters 100 Hz to 6 kHz in roughly 25 Hz steps for the first 120 or so.
QRPer: Will these be Ten-Tec proprietary, or may third-party filters (W4RT, etc.) be used? Ten-Tec: Any third-party filter made to work with a Ten-Tec radio will work in the Model 539. The manufacturer would have to take the initiative to build the filter to match our radio. Inrad has a long tradition of working with Ten-Tec in this respect, for example.
QRPer: How about easy power output control? Ten-Tec: Yes. Selectable from 1 watt to 10 watts in 1 watt increments. Zero watts for CW practice.
QRPer: Can power adjust down to the QRPp milliwatt levels? Ten-Tec: In its current state, the rig is 1-10 watts adjustable. That is something we could look at.
QRPer: Will the 539 be tested for RF immunity when used with portable (hfpack) type operation? Ten-Tec: It is possible that these conditions could be mimicked during beta testing. We can say that all proper FCC immunity testing will be performed. Of course, it will meet or exceed all spurious emissions requirements.
QRPer: How is the rig cooled? Is it a fan that can be fully controlled, or is there a heat-sink–of substantial size to accommodate the rig when mated to the amp? Ten-Tec: With the Model 539, heat is not a major issue. It will have a heat-sink, not a fan.
QRPer: Several readers emphasized the importance of minimizing the current drain on standby and receive. They felt this was the Achilles heel of the Argo V. Is this a consideration? Ten-Tec: Current drain is a consideration, but we place the most emphasis in the following areas: performance,sound quality and ease of use. We will certainly take current drain into consideration, but will not compromise the radio’s performance in the process.
QRPer: Would you consider distributing through HRO or AES? Ten-Tec: Ten-Tec is a factory-direct retailer. We do, however, have two very unique ways to assist future customers who cannot easily drive to our retail/factory store here in Sevierville, TN. Firstly, we are unique in the industry in that we give buyers 30 full days after purchase to use our radios hooked up at their home, to their own system and antennas. If, for any reason, they are not satisfied, we will take the radio back and give them a full refund less the shipping charges. Secondly, we have a very active Ten-Tec Ambassador program with ambassadors in literally every state of the US. Simply contact an ambassador and they will help you in any way possible to get a feel for our radios. We know of no other manufacturers or retailers who offer these options.
Model 418 Amplifier Questions
QRPer: A QRPer would like the Model 418 to be easily interfaced with other QRP radios and kits with a drive level low in the one watt range. Is this possible? Ten-Tec: This is a good point, and a strong point with the Model 418 amplifier. The Model 418 will be adaptable to any QRP transceiver out there.
QRPer: Will all modes be accommodated as well? (AM, CW, SSB, RTTY, PSK, FM), including those with full duty cycle? Ten-Tec: Yes.
QRPer: For desktop use, one QRPer suggested TT could add the tuner into the amp, if there’s no room in the 539. Ten-Tec: No, we would not put a tuner inside the amp.
QRPer: What are the minimum and maximum drive levels for the 418? One QRPer has a SDR project that will output 0.5 – 1.0 watts, but also would like to use it with a 516. Assuming that with the 539 output of 10w, it outputs 100w, but what might one get with one or two watts? Are there attenuators that could be switched out for this purpose? Ten-Tec: Again, the Model 418 will work with any transceiver out there. You must keep in mind, though, that it will adhere to FCC regulations regarding amplifiers. As such, it cannot produce more than 15db gain. Five watts in will produce 100 watts out. If your transceiver produces more than 5W in—and that’s perfectly fine—the Model 418 attenuates, so that no more than 100 watts leave the amplifier.
QRPer: In your view, how will the receiver compare to an Elecraft KX-1 or KX-3? Ten-Tec: Honestly, we’re not comparing it to any radios out there. The Model 539 will be a Ten-Tec radio, as such it will be a performer, it will have excellent audio fidelity, and the Model 539 will be easy to use—at home or in the field. It is a continuation of the Argonaut legacy and has been in the works for quite some time.
QRPer: Finally, on the business side: Ten-Tec is successfully manufacturing in the US, keeping people employed in a profoundly strained economy while so much manufacturing has been relocated to Asia and the far east. How do you do it? How does Ten-Tec keep going, creating great technology instead of bending to these powerful economic pressures? Ten-Tec: Let’s face it. These economic conditions are tough for any manufacturer and we’re certainly not immune to it. Though the amateur radio market is an active one for us, we also have military and commercial contracts. We also have an enclosure business. We’re well enough diversified that if one market suffers, we have business in other markets.
The Model 539 and the Model 418 will be designed, produced and manufactured here in Sevierville, Tennessee, in the US of A.
QRPer: Jack, John and Stan—I gathered these questions from hams who contacted me through QRPer.com and I also queried several email lists. I can say that there is a lot of excitement surrounding this radio—I sorted through and compiled these questions from literally a hundred or so. Thank you so much for allowing me to approach you with these questions and for your thorough answers.
Ten-Tec: Thank you, Tom, for the opportunity. This feedback is important and it’s our pleasure to provide it.
When I traveled last week to the Ten-Tec Hamfest in Sevierville, TN, and snapped a few photos of the Model 539 and 418, I had no idea that the response from my ensuing post on QRPer would receive the attention it did. It’s truly been extraordinary. Immediately after making this post, questions about these two prototypes started piling up in my inbox.
I compiled these questions and approached several email lists to ask if they had questions. Again, the response was overwhelming.
I approached Ten-Tec with the landslide of inquiries. But, fortunately, Ten-Tec was up for the challenge, and I’m very grateful they were able to provide dedicated time to provide some answers.
While this remarkable rig cannot provide everything to everyone–and none can–my overall impression from the interview is that the Model 539 transceiver really will offer excellent performance characteristics at a reasonable price. Ten-Tec has proven with their Eagle, OMNI VII, and Orion series that the company is responsive to customer needs and updates firmware very readily. This could be a winner.
I also came away from the interview with the strong sense that, though a lot of emphasis is now being placed on the Model 539, the Model 418 amp could be, in its class, the dark horse that finishes first. Yet what would it run against? Indeed, I know of nothing else like it on the market. Speaking for myself, I have several QRP radios in both the shack and the pack that could certainly benefit from the extra watts it could provide, should conditions prove unfavorable during a rag chew.
You might just note that I’ll continue to keep in touch with Ten-Tec and provide any public updates here on QRPer.com. Please subscribe to our RSS feed or follow us on Twitter.
Soon to come: an interview with Ten-Tec regarding the much-anticipated new Ten-Tec Model 539 and companion Model 418 100 Watt amplifier.
Many online readers are intrigued by this new product, and have already emailed questions about it. If you have a question or comment about the TT 539, please contact me; I’ll do my best to present it to Ten-Tec during this upcoming interview.
And do check back for the complete interview next week!
For some reason, I began to wonder if it would be possible to build a QRP CW transmitter using the electronic components salvaged from this derelict lamp.
Indeed, I’m pleased to report that a perfectly serviceable transmitter may be constructed! The only additional components required were the quartz crystal, and four of the five components needed for the output lowpass filter. The resulting transmitter produces up to 1.5 watts on 80m.
Michael, thanks for creating such a cool, simple, little QRP project. I’m ready to (carefully) tear into an old CFL bulb and give it a try!